For those awaiting release level 5.2 of Talend Open Studio for Data Integration, there is now a milestone release available from Talend’s website. For those awaiting a fix for the problems with connecting to SQL Server 2008 R2 using Windows Authentication, sorry to say but the problem is not corrected.
A solution remains to simple use SQL Server authentication, and that works, but this seems specifically to be a bug in the adding the connection and retrieving schema only. If you create the connection and it errors and then manually define a schema for a table stored on your SQL Server 2008 R2 database, it will actually query the data successfully. This means that they have attempted to make Windows Authentication work, but are not fixing certain bugs associated with it.
Although using SQL Server authentication is a valid work around, it is not an acceptable method to rely on long term. Hopefully Talend still chooses to address this.